Mejoremos La Participación Ciudadana

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Este 14 de noviembre llevamos a cabo nuestro evento Mejoremos La Participación Ciudadana abordando temas trascendentales entorno los desafíos que atraviesa nuestro sistema electoral.  

Las reformas a la Ley Electoral y de Partidos Políticos, que es la piedra angular para mejorar la representatividad y la participación ciudadana, serán de gran importancia los próximos meses. Hay ciertos temas que las reformas deben incluir que deben ponerse sobre la mesa. Por un lado, la literatura y la teoría de sistemas electorales abarca muchas cuestiones sobre las ventajas o desventajas de adoptar cierto sistema electoral. Por otro lado, cuando se lleva a la realidad esa teoría, vemos que los resultados no resuelven del todo los problemas representatividad y participación política. 

Como consecuencia, en el evento contamos con la participación de diversos actores que han participado en estos procesos electorales como candidatos. Dada su experiencia, fue valioso poder escuchar sus opiniones para entender cómo es el panorama electoral y los esfuerzos específicos que deben hacerse para mejorar la participación ciudadana.

¿En torno a qué giró la conversación?

Según la evidencia de encuestas de Latinobarótmetro o el Latin American Public Opinion Project, conocido como LAPOP, los guatemaltecos confían poco o nada en el sistema político. La confianza en las instituciones democráticas como los partidos políticos y el Congreso de la República es muy baja. A partir de esto, la discusión se centró entonces, en los mecanismos que deben modificarse para acercar más a los votantes con sus representantes. 

Para que haya cambios sustanciales en nuestro sistema político, los ciudadanos deberían tener la posibilidad de elegir directamente a los candidatos que prefieran y no seguir amarrados a un listado.

Jose Alberto Rivera 

Existe cierto malestar ante los efectos negativos que tienen las listas cerradas en el sistema actual. Se habló de cómo cambiar la forma de elegir a representantes es necesaria para que haya más representatividad, más contacto entre la ciudadanía y los diputados, así como mayor rendición de cuentas por parte de los candidatos electos. 

Como consecuencia, los votantes deberían tener la capacidad de elegir al candidato que quieren a través del voto preferente concordaron la mayoría de los participantes. 

Las listas cerradas evitan que salgan nuevos liderazgos dentro de los partidos. 

Eduardo Smith

En la misma línea se llegó a la conclusión que es importante y necesario que los partidos políticos se democraticen internamente. Esto para liberar la toma de decisiones que es exclusiva de la cúpula de los partidos. Esto para permitir primarias o que los afiliados de los partidos escojan a los candidatos de las listas.  A la vez se debe incentivar la institucionalidad de los partidos. 

También se abordó el tema del rediseño distrital o la posibilidad de crear subdistritos. Así como la posibilidad de tener distritos uninominales o de una magnitud baja. Esto con el objetivo que los votantes conozcan mejor a sus representantes y puedan fiscalizar su trabajo.

¿Ahora qué?

Se han identificado los problemas que tiene la democracia en Guatemala, ahora el siguiente paso es proponer soluciones. 

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